Maude Tools: Maude-NPA
This webpage describes version 3.1.2 of the Maude-NRL Protocol Analyzer (Maude-NPA) and gives instructions for its use.
Maude-NPA is an analysis tool for cryptographic protocols that takes into account many of the algebraic properties of crypto systems that are not included in other tools. These include cancellation of encryption and decryption, Abelian groups (including exclusive-or), exponentiation, and homomorphic encryption. Maude-NPA uses an approach similar to the original NRL Protocol Analyzer; it is based on unification, and performs backwards search from a final state to determine whether or not it is reachable. Unlike the original NPA, it has a theoretical basis in rewriting logic and narrowing, and offers support for a wider basis of equational theories that includes commutative (C), associative-commutative (AC), and associative-commutative-identity (ACU) theories.
We provide below a detailed manual of installation and how to use Maude-NPA, with several protocol examples. A description of Maude-NPA's formal foundations in rewriting logic, together with a soundness proof, is given in . Descriptions of how Maude-NPA handles different equational theories are given in [2, 3, 5, 8, 9, 13, 15]. API Protocols are considered in [16, 17].
A forward semantics is presented in . Several optimizations included into Maude-NPA for improving the performance and reducing the search space are introduced in [4, 5, 12]. A framework for protocol analysis with asymmetric unification is given in [10, 11]. The inclusion of disequality constraints is introduced in . Sequential protocol composition is introduced in . And a process algebra is introduced in .
A graphical interface for Maude-NPA was presented in  and is publicly available at http://www.csl.sri.com/users/iam/NPA/index.html.
Maude Protocol Specification Language (Maude-PSL)
An experimental specification language for the Maude-NPA has been developed by Andrew Cholewa in Spring 2015. It has the following advantages:
- Syntax based off of a conservative extension of the Alice and Bob notation that is both easier to read and write than the current input language.
- More stringent error checking.
- Significantly less code repetition.
A github repository of the language can be found here. In addition to the source code, the repository also contains a collection of example specifications and a draft of Andrew Cholewa's master's thesis, which provides a thorough description of the language.
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. A rewriting-based inference system for the NRL protocol analyzer and its meta-logical properties. Theoretical Computer Science, 367(1-2):162-202, 2006. DOI link
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. Equational cryptographic reasoning in the Maude-NRL protocol analyzer. In Proc. 1st International Workshop on Security and Rewriting Techniques (SecReT 2006), pages 23-36. ENTCS 171(4), Elsevier, 2007. DOI link
 S. Escobar, J. Hendrix, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. Diffie-Hellman cryptographic reasoning in the Maude-NRL protocol analyzer. In Proc. 2nd International Workshop on Security and Rewriting Techniques (SecReT 2007), 2007. PDF
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. State Space Reduction in the Maude-NRL Protocol Analyzer. In Proc. of 13th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS08), LNCS 5283, pages 548-562, Springer, 2008. DOI link
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer. Maude-NPA: Cryptographic Protocol Analysis Modulo Equational Properties. FOSAD 2007/2008/2009 Tutorial Lectures, LNCS 5705, pages 1-50. Springer-Verlag. DOI link
 S. Santiago, C. Talcott, S. Escobar, Catherine Meadows, J. Meseguer. A Graphical User Interface for Maude-NPA. In IX Jornadas sobre Programacion y Lenguajes (PROLE 2009). Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, volume 258, number 1, pages 3-20. Elsevier, 2009. DOI link
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, S. Santiago. Sequential Protocol Composition in Maude-NPA. In Proc. of European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS 2010), LNCS 6345, pages 303-318. 2010. DOI link
 R. Sasse, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer. Protocol Analysis Modulo Combination of Theories: A Case Study in Maude-NPA. In proceedings of 6th International Workshop on Security and Trust Management (STM'10), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 6710, pages 163-178, 2011. Download: DOI link
 S. Escobar, D. Kapur, C. Lynch, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, P. Narendran, and R. Sasse. Protocol Analysis in Maude-NPA Using Unification Modulo Homomorphic Encryption In proceedings of 13th International ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming (PPDP'2011). Download: DOI link
 S. Erbatur, S. Escobar, D. Kapur, Z. Liu, C. Lynch, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, P. Narendran, S. Santiago, and R. Sasse. Effective Symbolic Protocol Analysis via Equational Irreducibility Conditions. In proceedings of 17th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS 2012), LNCS 7459, pages 73-90, 2012. DOI link
 S. Erbatur, S. Escobar, D. Kapur, Z. Liu, C. Lynch, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, P. Narendran, S. Santiago, and R. Sasse. Asymmetric Unification: A New Unification Paradigm for Cryptographic Protocol Analysis. In proceedings of CADE-24 - the 24th International Conference on Automated Deduction, LNCS 7898, pages 231-248, Springer 2013. DOI link
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, S. Santiago State Space Reduction in the Maude-NRL Protocol Analyzer. Information and Computation, Volume 238, November 2014, Pages 157-186. DOI link
 F. Yang, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, and P. Narendran. Theories of Homomorphic Encryption, Unification, and the Finite Variant Property. In proceedings of 16th International Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming (PPDP 2014), September 8-10, 2014, Canterbury, UK DOI link
 S. Santiago, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. A Rewriting-based Forwards Semantics for Maude-NPA. In proceedings of Symposium and Bootcamp on the Science of Security (HotSoS 2014), April 8-9, 2014, Raleigh, NC, USA. DOI link
 S. Santiago, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. A Formal Definition of Protocol Indistinguishability and its Verification Using Maude-NPA. In proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Security and Trust Management (STM 2014), Wrocław, Poland - September 10-11, 2014 LNCS 8743, pages 162-177, Springer 2014. DOI link
 A. González-Burgueño, S. Santiago, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. Analysis of the IBM CCA Security API Protocols in Maude-NPA. In proceedings of 1st International Conference on Research in Security Standardisation (SSR 2014), Royal Holloway, London, UK - December 16-17, 2014 LNCS 8893, pages 111-130, Springer 2014. DOI link
 A. González-Burgueño, S. Santiago, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, and J. Meseguer. Analysis of the PKCS#11 API using the Maude-NPA tool. In proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Research in Security Standardisation (SSR 2015). LNCS 9497, pages 86-106. Springer 2015. DOI link
 S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, and S. Santiago. Symbolic Protocol Analysis with Disequality Constraints Modulo Equational Theories. In proceedings of Programming Languages with Applications to Biology and Security - Essays Dedicated to Pierpaolo Degano on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. LNCS 9465, pages 238-261. Springer 2015. DOI link
 F. Yang, S. Escobar, C. Meadows, J. Meseguer, and S. Santiago. Strand Spaces with Choice via a Process Algebra Semantics. In proceedings of 18th International Symposium on Principles and Practice of Declarative Programming (PPDP 2016). DOI link
Maude-NPA manual v3.1 (File:Maude-NPA manual v3 1.pdf)
Maude-NPA tool zip file v3.1.2 (File:Maude-npa-v3 1 2.zip)
Note that Maude-NPA requires a proper installation of Maude, included in the zip file.
- Maude-NPA tool zip file v3.1.1 (File:Maude-npa-v3 1 1.zip)
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