# Applications

From The Maude System

Maude and its formal tools have been used in many pioneering applications:

- Formal definition and verification of programming and hardware, resp. software, modeling languages: full C (ER12), Java (FCMR04), JVM (FMR04), NASA’s PLEXIL (RCMS12), Verilog (MKMR10), E-LOTOS (V02, VM05), UML (CE06, DRMA14), MOF (BM10), ODP (DV03, DRV05, RVD07), AADL (BOM14), Ptolemy (BOFLT14), and BPMN (DS17, DRS18).

- Browser security: uncovering 12 kinds of unknown attacks on Internet Explorer (CMSWW07), and design and verification of the secure-by-construction Illinois’s IBOS browser (SKMT12, SMR20).

- Cryptographic protocol analysis: Maude-NPA has analyzed many protocols and crypto-APIs modulo algebraic properties, like Yubikey&YubiHSM (GAEMM18), IBM’s CCA (GSEMM14), and PCKS#11 (GSEMM15), using unification and symbolic reachability. Tamarin, resp. AKISS, use Maude’s unification to analyze protocols like 5G-AKA (DC18), resp. RFID (GK17).

- Network protocols: AER/NCA active networks (OKMTZ06), MANETS (LOM16), BGP (Wetal13, Wetal11, WTGLS12); DDoS-Intruder models; and DDoS protection (LDFN18): ASV (AMG09), Stable Availability (EMMW12), VoIP-SIP (SASGM09), using Maude’s statistical model checking (SMC) tool.

- Cloud transaction system formalization and analysis: Cassandra (LNGRG15), Google’s Megastore (GO14), P-Store (O17), etc. (Betal18), using SMC.

- Analysis of real-time and cyber-physical systems: CASH scheduling (OC06), sensor (OT09) and MANET (LOM16) networks, timed security protocols (AEMMS20), PALS transformation from synchronous to correct distributed real-time systems (MO12, BMO12) enables model checking of complex models such as AADL and Ptolemy models (BOM14) and distributed control of airplane maneuvers (BKMO12).

- Models of cell signaling used to explain drug effects, identify pathogen attack surfaces, etc. (Pathway Logic)

- Specification and analysis of models of Concurrency: Petri Nets (SMO01), CCS, pi-Calculus ([1]), Actors (M93), REO (MSA), Orc (AM15).

- Logical framework applications to prototype logics and build and interoperate theorem provers: Barendregt’s lambda-cube (SM04), linear logic (MM02), modal logics (OPR18), computational algebraic geometry, Maude’s Church-Rosser Checker and Inductive (DM12, DMR20) and Reachability Logic (SSM17), theorem provers, HOL-to-Nuprl translator (NSM01), integration of logic and deep-learning, etc. These applications use meta-level, search, and symbolic features.